The Different Types of Blockchains: Public, Private, and Consortium

The Different Types of Blockchains

A blockchain is a distributed ledger technology that allows transactions to be recorded in a decentralized and immutable manner. While blockchain technology first became famous due to Bitcoin, blockchains have evolved into much more over the past decade. There are now different types of blockchains built for various use cases. The three main categories of blockchains are public, private, and consortium blockchains. Each has its own unique characteristics, benefits, and drawbacks.

Blockchain Technology

Before diving into the specifics of public, private, and consortium blockchains, it’s helpful to understand blockchain technology at a high level.

A blockchain is a database that is shared across a network of computers. When a transaction occurs, it is recorded on the blockchain in a block. This block is verified by other members of the network through a consensus mechanism. Once validated, the block is chained to the existing blockchain, creating an immutable record.

Some key attributes of blockchain technology:

  • Decentralized – No single entity controls the network. It is run by a distributed network of computers.
  • Transparent – Anyone can view the blocks and transactions on a public blockchain. Private blockchains have restricted views.
  • Immutable – Once data is recorded, it cannot be altered retroactively.
  • Cryptographic – Transactions are secured through cryptography, protecting data integrity.
  • Consensus-driven – Members of the network must agree to validate blocks and transactions.

These attributes allow blockchains to facilitate trust and security in a network without centralized oversight. Now let’s examine how public, private and consortium blockchains utilize these capabilities differently.

Public Blockchains

A public blockchain is open for anyone to participate in the network, either by running a node, validating blocks, submitting transactions or viewing transaction data. Public blockchains typically have an open-source code base and use a native cryptocurrency to incentivize participation through rewards. The largest and most well-known public blockchain is the Bitcoin blockchain. Others include Ethereum, Litecoin, Monero, and more.

Some key attributes of public blockchains:


Public blockchains are permissionless, meaning anyone can join the network, run a node, and participate in the consensus process. Users don’t need permission or authorization. This enables public blockchains to be highly decentralized since anyone globally can join.


Users on a public blockchain can be anonymous. Participating on the network only requires having a wallet address, which does not link back to a real-world identity. This provides privacy for users, though anonymity has also attracted illicit use.


Most public blockchains are fully transparent, meaning all transactions are viewable to anyone on the network. While transaction amounts and wallet addresses are visible, user identities remain private.


Transactions on public blockchains are set in stone. Records cannot be altered retroactively. This provides security from tampering and revision of historical transactions.


There is no single entity that can block or censor transactions on a public blockchain due to its decentralized nature. As long as transactions follow protocol rules, they will be validated.

Native Cryptocurrencies

Public blockchains have a native cryptocurrency that is awarded to incentivize participation in the network through the consensus mechanism. For example, the Bitcoin network has bitcoin (BTC) and the Ethereum network has ether (ETH).

Slower Transactions

Due to decentralized consensus mechanisms, transactions on public blockchains can be slower than private networks. Transaction finality takes on average 10 minutes for Bitcoin and 15 seconds for Ethereum.

Higher Costs

Transaction fees on public blockchains tend to be higher than other blockchain types. Fees are necessary to incentivize processing transactions and securing the network.

Overall, public blockchains prioritize open participation, transparency, immutability and security through decentralization. However, they sacrifice scalability and lower costs. Public blockchains are suitable for use cases like cryptocurrencies, asset transactions, and applications requiring censorship-resistance.

Private Blockchains

A private blockchain has restrictions on access and participation. It operates similarly to a traditional database with added benefits of the blockchain data structure. Private blockchains are operated by a single organization and allow only permitted parties to join. Financial institutions, enterprises and groups with common interests are major users of private blockchains.

Some key attributes of private blockchains:


Private blockchains are permissioned rather than permissionless. The operating entity dictates who is allowed to participate on the network and maintain the shared ledger. This enables greater control over data privacy and finality.

Partially Anonymous

User identity on a private blockchain depends on the requirements of the operating entity. Participants may need to reveal their identity to join the network. Transactions can be linked to real-world identities.

Not Transparent

Private blockchains do not need to make transaction details publicly visible. The operators decide how much data to keep private or share with certain participants. Hyperledger Fabric offers channels to segment data sharing.


Private blockchains can set their own standards for mutability. Transactions could be reversible under certain conditions dictated by the business requirements. This provides more flexibility than public blockchains.


The entity running a private blockchain can potentially censor transactions or blacklist certain participants per governance policies. This is not possible on public blockchains.

No Cryptocurrency

A native cryptocurrency is generally not needed on private blockchains. Rewards and incentives can be managed within the network according to internal criteria.

Faster Transactions

Transactions can settle much quicker on private blockchains since consensus mechanisms involve fewer nodes that trust each other. Ethereum processes transactions in seconds compared to minutes on the public network.

Lower Fees

With less decentralization and computational work required for consensus, transaction costs are minimal on private blockchains. Efficient consensus protocols can be used.

Overall, private blockchains optimize for transaction privacy, internal governance, and performance. They are suited for regulated environments like financial services or consortiums that value data control.

Consortium Blockchains

A consortium blockchain is a hybrid model that provides the benefits of both public and private blockchains. It involves a pre-selected group of participants managing the network. While not fully decentralized, it is distributed enough to provide many of the security guarantees of public blockchains. Consortium blockchains are designed to facilitate cooperation between enterprises.

Some key attributes of consortium blockchains:

Partially Decentralized

Instead of a single entity controlling the network, a consortium blockchain is managed by a group of participants, such as several banks or firms in a given industry. This provides more decentralization and trust compared to a purely private network.

Partially Permissioned

Read permissions may be public or restricted, while write permissions are limited to a set of participants. This allows authorized participants to manage transactions and maintain the ledger collaboratively.

Selectively Transparent

Participants can choose what data to keep private or make transparent to certain parties per use case requirements. For example, financial transactions between banks could be confidential while sharing data on asset transfers.

Customizable Consensus

Consortium blockchains can modify consensus mechanisms based on the number of validators and use case. More decentralized consensus is possible compared to private networks.

Preferred Participants

While more open than fully private chains, consortium chains have restrictions on which entities can join the network as validators. The shared governance model requires coordination and trust.


With fewer nodes than public blockchains, consortium chains can settle transactions faster and at lower cost while still maintaining a distributed consensus mechanism.

Overall, consortium blockchains strike a balance between the decentralization of public blockchains and the centralization of private blockchains. They enable groups of entities to collaborate with selective data transparency and accountability.

Comparing Public, Private and Consortium Blockchains

AttributePublic BlockchainPrivate BlockchainConsortium Blockchain
ParticipationPermissionlessPermissionedSelectively permissioned
Read AccessPublicRestrictedPublic or restricted
Write AccessPermissionlessPermissionedPermissioned
Consensus ProcessFully decentralizedCentralizedPartially decentralized
ImmutabilityFully immutableMutableCustomizable
Native TokenYesNoOptional
Transaction SpeedSlowFastModerate
Transaction CostHigherLowLow to moderate
Use CasesCryptocurrencies, transparent record keepingEnterprise solutions, regulated industriesCross-organizational collaborations

How to Selecting the Right Blockchain Type

Determining whether a public, private or consortium blockchain is most suitable depends on the specific use case requirements. Here are some key considerations for selection:

  • User restrictions – Private and consortium blockchains have more control over participant permissions compared to public networks.
  • Read access – Public blockchains allow open read access while private chains restrict access. Consortium chains are customizable based on use case needs.
  • Immutability – Public blockchains offer full immutability. Private blockchains are more flexible while consortium chains are in the middle.
  • Consensus needs – Fully decentralized consensus with many nodes works for public blockchains. Smaller private chains need just a few validators. Consortiums vary based on number of participants.
  • Efficiency – Public blockchains sacrifice speed and cost for security. Private blockchains optimize for performance over decentralization. Consortiums balance both.
  • Compliance – Private chains are better suited for applications with regulatory compliance requirements compared to public chains.
  • Use case fit – The blockchain type must align with the product requirements. Public chains fit decentralized applications while enterprises gravitate toward private chains. Consortium chains enable collaborative solutions between organizations.

It’s important to fully understand the unique characteristics and trade-offs of each blockchain type before making a decision. Blockchain technology is still maturing and new hybrid models continue to emerge for different needs.


Public, private and consortium blockchains utilize blockchain’s capabilities in different ways to optimize for various use cases. While public chains prioritize censorship resistance, private chains enable centralized control. Consortium blockchains strike a balance with semi-distributed consensus. Understanding the core attributes of each model allows organizations to select the optimal blockchain type for their specific requirements and future evolution in the blockchain ecosystem.

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

What are the different types of blockchains?

There are three main types of blockchains: public, private, and consortium.

  1. Public blockchains: Public blockchains are open to anyone to join and participate in. Transactions on a public blockchain are verified by all nodes on the network, and anyone can view the blockchain’s data. Examples of public blockchains include Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Solana.
  2. Private blockchains: Private blockchains are permissioned, meaning that only authorized users can join and participate in the network. Transactions on a private blockchain are verified by a limited number of nodes, and only authorized users can view the blockchain’s data. Examples of private blockchains include Hyperledger Fabric and Corda.
  3. Consortium blockchains: Consortium blockchains are semi-permissioned, meaning that a group of pre-selected organizations govern the network. Transactions on a consortium blockchain are verified by nodes controlled by the governing organizations, and only members of the consortium can view the blockchain’s data. Examples of consortium blockchains include R3 Corda Enterprise and Hyperledger Fabric.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of blockchain?

Public blockchains:

  • Advantages: Public blockchains are decentralized, transparent, and secure.
  • Disadvantages: Public blockchains can be slow and expensive to use, and they can be vulnerable to attacks.

Private blockchains:

  • Advantages: Private blockchains are fast, efficient, and scalable. They are also more private and secure than public blockchains.
  • Disadvantages: Private blockchains are centralized, and they are not as transparent as public blockchains.

Consortium blockchains:

  • Advantages: Consortium blockchains offer a balance between the decentralization of public blockchains and the centralization of private blockchains. They are also more scalable and efficient than public blockchains.
  • Disadvantages: Consortium blockchains can be complex to set up and manage.

Which type of blockchain is right for you?

The best type of blockchain for you depends on your specific needs. If you need a blockchain that is decentralized, transparent, and secure, then a public blockchain is a good option. If you need a blockchain that is fast, efficient, and scalable, then a private or consortium blockchain is a good option.

Here is a table that summarizes the key differences between public, private, and consortium blockchains:

FeaturePublic blockchainPrivate blockchainConsortium blockchain
Use casesCryptocurrency payments, decentralized applications (dApps)Enterprise applications, supply chain management, healthcare data managementBanking and finance, healthcare, government

Blockchain technology is a powerful tool that can be used to improve a wide range of industries. The different types of blockchains offer different advantages and disadvantages, so it is important to choose the right type of blockchain for your specific needs.

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