What is the Difference Between a Private Blockchain and a Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)

Difference Between a Private Blockchain and a Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)

Blockchain technology has revolutionized the way we think about data storage and transmission. By allowing digital information to be distributed without being copied, blockchain creates the backbone of a new type of internet. Originally devised for the digital currency Bitcoin, the tech community has now found other potential uses for blockchain such as smart contracts, digital identities, and distributed cloud storage.

However, blockchain technology comes in different forms. There are public blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum which allow anyone to participate. There are also private blockchains that require permission to join. Both types of blockchains are examples of distributed ledger technology (DLT), which allows data to be stored globally on multiple devices.

But what exactly is the difference between a private blockchain and DLT? And why does this distinction matter? This comprehensive guide will examine the key differences between private blockchains and distributed ledgers to shed light on their unique capabilities and use cases.

What is Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)?

Distributed ledger technology (DLT) is a broader term encompassing a range of decentralized, secure, and transparent data recording systems. It enables multiple participants to maintain a shared, synchronized ledger of transactions without the need for a central authority. This distributed nature of DLTs promotes trust and immutability, ensuring that recorded data cannot be tampered with or altered.

Key Characteristics of DLTs:

  • Decentralization: DLTs eliminate the reliance on a single entity, distributing data and control across multiple nodes within a network.
  • Security: DLTs employ cryptographic techniques to safeguard data and transactions, making them highly resistant to tampering and fraud.
  • Transparency: All participants in a DLT network have access to the shared ledger, enabling open and transparent record-keeping.

Types of DLTs:

There are two main types of DLTs: public and private. Public DLTs, such as the Bitcoin blockchain, are permissionless, allowing anyone to join the network and participate in consensus processes. Private DLTs, on the other hand, are permissioned, requiring authorization to participate.

What is a Private Blockchain?

A private blockchain is a type of DLT that operates within a controlled environment, typically governed by a specific organization or group of participants. Unlike public blockchains, private blockchains restrict access to authorized users, granting them varying levels of permissions. This permissioned structure provides enhanced control and privacy, making private blockchains suitable for sensitive data and collaboration among trusted entities.

Key Characteristics of Private Blockchains:

  • Permissioned Access: Participants must be granted permission to join the network and perform transactions.
  • Enhanced Control: Organizations retain control over the network’s governance, data access, and transaction verification processes.
  • Privacy: Transactions and data are visible only to authorized participants, providing a more secure environment for sensitive information.

Applications of Private Blockchains:

Private blockchains offer a range of potential applications in various industries, including:

  • Supply Chain Management: Private blockchains can enhance supply chain transparency and traceability, enabling tracking of goods from origin to destination.
  • Financial Services: Private blockchains can facilitate secure and efficient cross-border payments, trade finance, and regulatory compliance.
  • Healthcare: Private blockchains can securely manage sensitive patient data, facilitate medical record sharing, and streamline clinical trials.

Private Blockchain vs. DLT: A Comparative Analysis

FeaturePrivate BlockchainDistributed Ledger Technology (DLT)
AccessPermissionedPermissionless or permissioned
TransparencyLimited to authorized participantsTransparent to all participants
Consensus MechanismVaried, often tailored to specific use casesConsensus mechanism determines network governance
ApplicationsSuitable for sensitive data and collaboration within trusted entitiesBroader range of applications, including public-facing use cases

Defining Blockchain Technology

Before exploring the nuances between private blockchains and DLTs, it’s important to level set on what blockchain technology is in general.

At its most basic, a blockchain is a distributed database that maintains a continuously growing list of records called blocks. Each block contains a timestamp and a link to the previous block, creating a chain of data. The key innovations of blockchain are:

  • Decentralization – No single entity controls the data. The database is spread across a peer-to-peer network with each participant acting as a node.
  • Transparency – Every node in the network has a complete record of all the data stored on the blockchain since its inception.
  • Immutability – Once data is written to the blockchain, it cannot be changed. Old blocks cannot be deleted or modified.

These properties allow blockchains to facilitate trust between untrusted parties without requiring a central authority. Since every participant has a copy of the ledger, fraudulent transactions are prevented.

Public vs Private Blockchains

All blockchains operate on similar principles but can be categorized based on who is allowed to participate:

  • Public blockchains – These are open networks that anyone can join. Public blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum have no access restrictions. Transactions are viewable to all participants.
  • Private blockchains – These are closed networks that require permission to join. Read permissions may be public or restricted to certain participants. Private blockchains are controlled by a single entity or consortium that determines who can contribute data.

Consensus Mechanisms

In order to add new blocks to the chain, blockchain networks rely on consensus mechanisms to validate transactions. Some examples include:

  • Proof-of-work – Participants compete to solve complex puzzles in order to add the next block. Used by public blockchains like Bitcoin.
  • Proof-of-stake – Validators stake currency on the validity of the next block. If they act dishonestly, their stake is forfeited. Used by public blockchains like Ethereum 2.0.
  • PBFT – Uses a voting mechanism where a supermajority must approve each new block. Common in private blockchains.

The consensus mechanism depends on the type of blockchain as well as use case requirements like speed and scalability.

Unveiling the Key Distinctions: A Tale of Two Technologies

To fully grasp the differences between private blockchains and DLT, let’s delve into their defining characteristics:

Permission Structure:

  • DLT: Permissionless, allowing anyone to join the network.
  • Private Blockchain: Permissioned, restricting access to authorized participants.


  • DLT: Highly transparent, with all transactions visible to network participants.
  • Private Blockchain: Transparency can be tailored to specific requirements, allowing for selective visibility.

Consensus Mechanism:

  • DLT: Employs a variety of consensus mechanisms, such as Proof of Work (PoW) or Proof of Stake (PoS).
  • Private Blockchain: Consensus mechanisms are often customized to suit the network’s specific needs.

Data Storage and Access:

  • DLT: Data is stored and accessible across the entire network, ensuring data integrity and availability.
  • Private Blockchain: Data storage and access are controlled by authorized participants, enhancing privacy and regulatory compliance.

Applications and Use Cases:

  • DLT: Widely applicable across diverse industries, including finance, healthcare, and supply chain management.
  • Private Blockchain: Ideal for sensitive data management within organizations or consortiums, particularly in industries requiring strict privacy and regulatory adherence.

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)

Distributed ledger technology (DLT) refers broadly to any database spread across multiple sites, regions, or participants. The goal of DLT is to allow digital assets and information to be securely stored and exchanged without requiring third-party intermediaries like banks.

Blockchain is actually a specific form of DLT. While all blockchains are distributed ledgers, not all distributed ledgers are blockchains. Other examples of DLT include directed acrylic graphs and hashgraphs.

Here are some key qualities of DLT networks:

  • Distributed – Records are stored across a network of multiple participants rather than one centralized database.
  • Cryptographically secure – The ledger uses encryption to ensure fidelity of transactions and prevent tampering or revision.
  • Decentralized – No central entity controls the network. Consensus is determined collaboratively.
  • Auditable – Participants can view and verify the complete history of transactions.

DLT allows rivals to collaboratively store and transmit information without compromising security or control. It has the potential to make transactions faster, cheaper, and more transparent.

Comparing Private Blockchains vs Distributed Ledgers

Now that we’ve defined blockchain and DLT independently, how exactly do private blockchains differ from DLT networks?

While private blockchains are one type of DLT, they have some unique properties including:

Access Controls

  • Private blockchains – Require an invitation or permission to join. Access is centrally controlled.
  • Distributed ledgers – Can be either permissioned or permissionless. Some DLTs are open while others restrict access.

Consensus Determination

  • Private blockchains – Typically use a centralized consensus model like PBFT where appointed nodes validate transactions.
  • Distributed ledgers – Use a variety of models including permissioned and permissionless. Some DLTs allow open participation.


  • Private blockchains – Faster transaction times and lower costs by limiting number of nodes.
  • Distributed ledgers – Slower and more expensive due to computational requirements of consensus mechanisms.

Centralized Control

  • Private blockchains – Entities that operate the network have more control. Ability to update software and protocols.
  • Distributed ledgers – Control is decentralized across all participants. Changes require broad agreement.


  • Private blockchains – Data can be erased or modified more easily. Cryptographic security is selective.
  • Distributed ledgers – Highly tamper-resistant. All records are permanent and immutable.


  • Private blockchains – Allow for restricted visibility of transactions. Encrypted data is only shared with certain nodes.
  • Distributed ledgers – Fully transparent. All participants can view details of every transaction.

While private blockchains forfeit some decentralization and immutability in exchange for efficiency and control, both models provide secure recordkeeping and consensus. The differences come down to use case requirements.

Comparing Technical Architectures

Beyond conceptual differences, private blockchains and distributed ledgers rely on different technical architectures to function:

Network Structure

  • Private blockchains – Use a centralized hub-and-spoke model. Transactions are approved through identified validators.
  • Distributed ledgers – Have a decentralized peer-to-peer structure. Transactions can be approved by any node.

Data Storage

  • Private blockchains – Each participant maintains a full copy of the ledger. Data is synchronized through the network.
  • Distributed ledgers – Data may be fragmented across nodes. Not all participants store the full ledger.

Consensus Models

  • Private blockchains – Tend to use a selective consensus model like PBFT with known validators.
  • Distributed ledgers – Use Nakamoto consensus, hybrid models, unique mechanisms like hashgraphs, etc.

Hashing Algorithms

  • Private blockchains – Can use simplified hashing functions for speed. Do not require intensive computations.
  • Distributed ledgers – Often depend on cryptographic hashing like SHA-256 for proofs of work.

The technical designs make different tradeoffs based on the network’s priorities like scalability, security, and participation.

Hybrid and Consortium Models

Hybrid blockchain architectures have also emerged that blend properties of public and private networks:

  • Consortium blockchains – Controlled by a pre-selected group of entities instead of a single organization. For example, a group of financial firms.
  • Partially decentralized blockchains – Uses a combination of permissioned and permissionless consensus mechanisms. Allows some open participation while keeping overall control centralized.
  • Interoperable blockchains – Networks with the ability to share data and operate seamlessly with each other. Enables different chains to play to their strengths.

Similarly, some distributed ledgers use tiered permission systems to limit certain functionality while maintaining more open access. Hybrid models demonstrate that DLT exists across a spectrum.

Private Blockchain vs DLT: Use Cases

Understanding the unique capabilities of private blockchains and distributed ledger networks reveals why enterprises should choose one model or the other:

Private Blockchains

Private blockchains offer known identities, restricted access, and customizable controls. This makes them ideal for:

  • Consortium blockchains – Let groups of semi-trusting organizations such as banks exchange information securely without revealing everything to competitors outside the network.
  • Supply chain tracking – Retailers, manufacturers and transporters can trace the provenance of goods through the supply chain while selectively exposing data to different partners.
  • Health records – Providers and insurers get a consolidated view of patient information without exposing medical history on a public ledger.
  • Financial services – Banks can settle cross-border payments between themselves faster while limiting transaction visibility.
  • Internal data security – Organizations can reduce internal data silos and better monitor access controls.

Distributed Ledger Technology

Distributed ledgers allow open, transparent record keeping across a decentralized network. This provides:

  • Cryptocurrency – Facilitates exchange of digital money without requiring a trusted third-party such as a bank. Public ledgers like Bitcoin enable pseudonymous online transactions.
  • Smart contracts – Enables provable, automated digital agreements. Conditions self-execute when fulfilled without intermediaries.
  • Supply chain integrity – Provides open, permanent records of supply chain transactions to improve accountability, prevent fraud in manufacturing, shipping etc.
  • Voting mechanisms – An open, verifiable ledger of votes can prevent tampering with electoral results or recounts.
  • Credentialing – Allows individuals to store tamper-proof educational credentials on a blockchain rather than paper transcripts and certificates.

Embracing the Future with Private Blockchains and DLTs

As DLTs continue to evolve and mature, their impact on various industries and aspects of our lives is poised to grow exponentially. Private blockchains, with their enhanced privacy and control mechanisms, are well-positioned to play a pivotal role in enterprise settings, while DLTs, in general, hold the promise of revolutionizing how we manage data, conduct transactions, and interact in the digital world.

Key Takeaways

In summary, here are the key differences between private blockchains and distributed ledger technology:

  • Private blockchains have restricted access whereas DLT can be either permissioned or permissionless.
  • Private blockchains use a centralized consensus model compared to the variety of mechanisms used by DLT.
  • Private blockchains prioritize efficiency and privacy while DLT emphasizes decentralization and immutability.
  • From a technical perspective, private blockchains operate differently than distributed ledgers in areas like network structure, data storage, and hashing.
  • Private blockchains are well suited for controlled information sharing among consortiums like enterprises and governments.
  • Distributed ledgers excel at facilitating fully transparent and tamper-proof record keeping across open decentralized networks.
  • Hybrid blockchain architectures demonstrate that DLT exists across a spectrum rather than a binary choice.

By understanding the core differences between private blockchains and distributed ledgers, enterprises can determine the right solution for their industry, use case requirements and network structure. Both models offer enhanced security, resilience and collaboration compared to traditional record keeping. Leveraging their respective strengths provides opportunities to reduce costs, prevent errors, and streamline operations across countless sectors.


Private blockchains and DLT, though often intertwined, represent distinct technological approaches with unique strengths and applications. Understanding their nuances is essential for harnessing their transformative potential. As technology continues to advance, both these concepts are poised to revolutionize the way we interact with data and engage in digital transactions, paving the way for a more secure, transparent, and efficient future.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

What is a private blockchain?

A private blockchain is a permissioned distributed ledger technology (DLT) network that is only accessible to authorized participants. This contrasts with public blockchains, which are open to anyone. Private blockchains are often used by businesses and organizations that need to share sensitive data or that want to have more control over the network.

What is a distributed ledger technology (DLT)?

A distributed ledger technology (DLT) is a database that is spread across multiple computers or nodes. This means that there is no single point of failure, and the data is more secure. DLTs are often used to record transactions, such as financial transactions or supply chain transactions.

What are the key differences between a private blockchain and a DLT?

The key differences between a private blockchain and a DLT are as follows:

  • Permission: Private blockchains are permissioned, while DLTs can be permissioned or permissionless.
  • Access control: Private blockchains restrict access to authorized participants, while DLTs may or may not have access controls.
  • Consensus: Private blockchains typically use proof-of-work (PoW) or proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus mechanisms, while DLTs can use a variety of consensus mechanisms.
  • Privacy: Private blockchains offer enhanced privacy, while DLTs may or may not offer strong privacy.
  • Governance: Private blockchains are controlled by a consortium or organization, while DLTs can be decentralized or controlled by a governing body.
  • Scalability: Private blockchains can achieve higher scalability due to controlled participation, while DLT scalability varies depending on the specific DLT.
  • Applications: Private blockchains are often used in enterprise settings, while DLTs have a wider range of applications, including public blockchains and cryptocurrencies.

What are the benefits of using a private blockchain or DLT?

The benefits of using a private blockchain or DLT include:

  • Enhanced security: Private blockchains and DLTs are more secure than traditional centralized databases.
  • Increased transparency: Private blockchains and DLTs provide a transparent record of transactions.
  • Improved efficiency: Private blockchains and DLTs can improve the efficiency of business processes.
  • Reduced costs: Private blockchains and DLTs can reduce costs by eliminating the need for intermediaries.

What are the challenges of using a private blockchain or DLT?

The challenges of using a private blockchain or DLT include:

  • Complexity: Private blockchains and DLTs can be complex to implement and manage.
  • Cost: The cost of implementing and managing a private blockchain or DLT can be high.
  • Regulation: The regulatory landscape for private blockchains and DLTs is still evolving.

What is the future of private blockchains and DLTs?

Private blockchains and DLTs have the potential to revolutionize a wide range of industries. As the technology matures, it is likely that we will see even more widespread adoption of private blockchains and DLTs.

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